After 1973, Japanese annual birth rate is declining continuously.
This birthrate shows how many children one parent bear for life, and statistic show that if it is less than 2.07, it can not maintain the population. As a result, Japanese population has been decreasing, and people who are getting older than 65 years population is growing up.
What is the factor for this decline in birthrate? First of all, the main factor is, how people marry has changed. One of the factors is that tendency to marry late in life and bachelorhood. Please see the graph-I below.
<Graph-I ; the first marriage age>
■ Man ■ Women
The average first marriage age of a man is 29.8 years old in 2005
The average first marriage age of a woman is 28.0 years old in 2005
The graph-II shows the single rate, not marry.
<Graph-II ; the single rate>
42.9% of men 30-34 years old do not marry.
54% of women 25-29 years old do not marry.
An increased trend is seen year by year.
In addition, fall of a birth pace after marriage is coming down.
<Graph-III ; the birth rate>
Past few decades, young woman bore many children, but now delivery age is rising, and the birth rate is decreasing.
Why has it been changed? It has been affecting related to social and economical issue. For example, Independence of a woman, high educational background, and house environment issues such as price of land has been increasing, exceed work as over time has become common it means parents don’t have time to take care of child, so there are many problems. Japanese cost of living is rising steadily and cannot afford home loan, educational expenses of a child only with the salary of father.As a result, in Japan, a marriage age has increased, and single or bachelor rate has increased.
How should we counter this issue in the future? Basically maintenance of a social security system by the government is necessary. For example, expansion of children’s allowance makes it easy to take maternity vacation, it is necessary to build the society system which can be compatible to work and take care of child.
It is not easy to solve this issue. We must get a good environment such as good society and government support. So that everybody advances and bears a child, and can want to grow up. I think that this is modern and urgent issue of Japan.